In order to easily use and control the Crazyflie there's an library made in Python that gives high-level functions and hides the details. This page contains generic information about how to use this library and the API that it implements.
If you are interested in more details look in the PyDoc in the code or:
Structure of the library
The library is asynchronous and based on callbacks for events. Functions
open_link will return immediately, and the callback
will be called when the link is opened. The library doesn't contain any
threads or locks that will keep the application running, it's up to the
application that is using the library to do this.
There are a few synchronous wrappers for selected classes that creates a synchronous API by wrapping the asynchronous classes, see the Synchronous API section
Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
All communication links are identified using an URI build up of the following: InterfaceType://InterfaceId/InterfaceChannel/InterfaceSpeed
Currently only radio and debug interfaces are used but there's ideas for more like udp, serial, usb, etc...Here are some examples:
- \%%Radio interface, USB dongle number 0, radio channel 10 and radio speed 250 Kbit/s: radio://0/10/250K %%
- Debug interface, id 0, channel 1: debug://0/1
Variables and logging
The library supports setting up logging configurations that are used for logging variables from the firmware. Each log configuration contains a number of variables that should be logged as well as a time period (in ms) of how often the data should be sent back to the host. Once the log configuration is added to the firmware the firmware will automatically send back the data at every period. These configurations are used in the following way:
- Connect to the Crazyflie (log configurations needs a TOC to work)
- Create a log configuration that contains a number of variables to log and a period at which they should be logged
- Add the log configuration. This will also validate that the log configuration is sane (i.e uses a supported period and all variables are in the TOC)
- After checking that the configuration is valid, set up callbacks for the data in your application and start the log configuration
- Each time the firmware sends data back to the host the callback will the called with a time-stamp and the data
There's a few limitations that needs to be taken into account:
- The maximum byte lenght for a log packet is of 26 bytes. This for for example allows to log 6 floats and one uint16_t (6*4 + 2 bytes) in a single packet.
- The minimum period of a for a log configuration is multiples of 10ms
The library supports reading and writing parameters at run-time to the firmware. This is intended to be used for data that is not continuously being changed by the firmware, like setting regulation parameters and reading out if the power-on self-tests passed. Parameters should only change in the firmware when being set from the host or during start-up. The library doesn't continuously update the parameter values, this should only be done once after connecting. After each write to a parameter the firmware will send back the updated value and this will be forwarded to callbacks registered for reading this parameter. The parameters should be used in the following way:
- Register parameter updated callbacks at any time in your application
- Connect to your Crazyflie (this will download the parameter TOC)
- Request updates for all the parameters
- The library will call all the callbacks registered
- The host can now write parameters that will be forwarded to the firmware
- For each write all the callbacks registered for this parameter will be called back
Variable and parameter names
All names of parameters and log variables use the same structure:
The group should be used to bundle together logical groups, like
everything that has to do with the stabilizer should be in the group
There's a limit of 28 chars in total and here are some examples:
All callbacks are handled using the
Caller class that contains the
add_callback(cb) """ Register cb as a new callback. Will not register duplicates. """ remove_callback(cb) """ Un-register cb from the callbacks """ call(*args) """ Call the callbacks registered with the arguments args """
The library contains a special link driver, named
driver will emulate a Crazyflie and is used for testing of the UI and
library. Normally this will be hidden from the user except if explicitly
enabled in the configuration file. The driver supports the following:
- Connecting a download param and log TOCs
- Setting up log configurations and sending back fake data
- Setting and reading parameters
There are a number of different URIs that will be returned from the driver. These will have different functions, like always returning a random TOC CRC to always trigger TOC downloading or failing during connect. The driver also has support for sending back data with random delays to trigger random re-sending by the library.
Initiating the link drivers
Before the library can be used the link drivers have to he initialized. This will search for available drivers and instantiate them.
init_drivers(enable_debug_driver=False) """ Search for and initialize link drivers. If enable_debug_driver is True then the DebugDriver will also be used."""
The serial driver is disabled by default and has to be enabled to
be used. Enable it in the call to
Connection- and link-callbacks
Operations on the link and connection will return directly and will call the following callbacks when events occur:
# Called on disconnect, no matter the reason disconnected = Caller() # Called on unintentional disconnect only connection_lost = Caller() # Called when the first packet in a new link is received link_established = Caller() # Called when the user requests a connection connection_requested = Caller() # Called when the link is established and the TOCs (that are not cached) # have been downloaded connected = Caller() # Called if establishing of the link fails (i.e times out) connection_failed = Caller() # Called for every packet received packet_received = Caller() # Called for every packet sent packet_sent = Caller() # Called when the link driver updates the link quality measurement link_quality_updated = Caller()
To register for callbacks the following is used:
crazyflie = Crazyflie() crazyflie.connected.add_callback(crazyflie_connected)
Finding a Crazyflie and connecting
The first thing to do is to find a Crazyflie quadcopter that we can connect to. This is done by queuing the library that will scan all the available interfaces (currently the debug and radio interface).
cflib.crtp.init_drivers() available = cflib.crtp.scan_interfaces() for i in available: print "Interface with URI [%s] found and name/comment [%s]" % (i, i)
Opening and closing a communication link is doing by using the Crazyflie object:
crazyflie = Crazyflie() crazyflie.connected.add_callback(crazyflie_connected) crazyflie.open_link("radio://0/10/250K")
Then you can use the following to close the link again:
Sending control setpoints
The control setpoints are not implemented as parameters, instead they have a special API.
send_setpoint(roll, pitch, yaw, thrust): """ Send a new control set-point for roll/pitch/yaw/thust to the copter The arguments roll/pitch/yaw/trust is the new set-points that should be sent to the copter """
To send a new control set-point use the following:
roll = 0.0 pitch = 0.0 yawrate = 0 thrust = 0 crazyflie.commander.send_setpoint(roll, pitch, yawrate, thrust)
Thrust is an integer value ranging from 10001 (next to no power) to 60000 (full power). It corresponds to the mean thrust that will be appied to the motors. There is a battery compensation algorythm applied to make the thrust mostly independent of battery voltage. Roll/pitch are in degree and yarate in degree/seconds.
This command will set the attitude controller setpoint for the next 500ms. After 500ms without net setpoint, the Crazyflie will apply a setpoint with the same thrust but with roll/pitch/yawrate = 0, this will make the Crazyflie stop accelerate. After 2secons without new setpoint the Crazyflie will cut power to the motors.
Note that this command implements a motor lock mechanism that is intended to avoid flyaway when connecting a gamepad. You must send one command with thrust = 0 in order to unlock the command. This unlock procedure needs to be repeated if the watchdog describe above kicks-in.
The parameter framework is used to read and set parameters. This functionality should be used when:
- The parameter is not changed by the Crazyflie but by the client
- The parameter is not read periodically
If this is not the case then the logging framework should be used instead.
To set a parameter you have to the connected to the Crazyflie. A parameter is set using:
param_name = "group.name" param_value = 3 crazyflie.param.set_value(param_name, param_value)
The parameter reading is done using callbacks. When a parameter is updated from the host (using the code above) the parameter will be read back by the library and this will trigger the callbacks. Parameter callbacks can be added at any time (you don't have to be connected to a Crazyflie).
add_update_callback(group, name=None, cb=None) """ Add a callback for a specific parameter name or group. If not name is specified then all parameters in the group will trigger the callback. This callback will be executed when a new value is read from the Crazyflie. """ request_param_update(complete_name) """ Request an update of the value for the supplied parameter. """ set_value(complete_name, value) """ Set the value for the supplied parameter. """
Here's an example of how to use the calls.
crazyflie.param.add_update_callback(group="group", name="name", param_updated_callback) def param_updated_callback(name, value): print "%s has value %d" % (name, value)
The logging framework is used to enable the "automatic" sending of variable values at specified intervals to the client. This functionality should be used when:
- The variable is changed by the Crazyflie and not by the client
- The variable is updated at high rate and you want to read the value periodically
If this is not the case then the parameter framework should be used instead.
The API to create and get information from LogConfig:
# Called when new logging data arrives data_received_cb = Caller() # Called when there's an error error_cb = Caller() # Called when the log configuration is confirmed to be started started_cb = Caller() # Called when the log configuration is confirmed to be added added_cb = Caller() add_variable(name, fetch_as=None) """Add a new variable to the configuration. name - Complete name of the variable in the form group.name fetch_as - String representation of the type the variable should be fetched as (i.e uint8_t, float, FP16, etc) If no fetch_as type is supplied, then the stored as type will be used (i.e the type of the fetched variable is the same as it's stored in the Crazyflie).""" start() """Start the logging for this entry""" stop() """Stop the logging for this entry""" delete() """Delete this entry in the Crazyflie"""
The API for the log in the Crazyflie:
add_config(logconf) """Add a log configuration to the logging framework. When doing this the contents of the log configuration will be validated and listeners for new log configurations will be notified. When validating the configuration the variables are checked against the TOC to see that they actually exist. If they don't then the configuration cannot be used. Since a valid TOC is required, a Crazyflie has to be connected when calling this method, otherwise it will fail."""
To create a logging configuration the following can be used:
logconf = LogConfig(name="Logging", period_in_ms=100) logconf.add_variable("group1.name1", "float") logconf.add_variable("group1.name2", "uint8_t") logconf.add_variable("group2.name1", "int16_t")
The datatype is the transferred datatype, it will be converted from internal type to transferred type before transfers:
- uint8_t and int8_t
- uint16_t and int16_t
- uint32_t and int32_t
- FP16: 16bit version of floating point, allows to pack more variable in one packet at the expense of precision.
The logging cannot be started until your are connected to a Crazyflie:
# Callback called when the connection is established to the Crazyflie def connected(link_uri): crazyflie.log.add_config(logconf) if logconf.valid: logconf.data_received_cb.add_callback(data_received_callback) logconf.error_cb.add_callback(logging_error) logconf.start() else: print "One or more of the variables in the configuration was not found in log TOC. No logging will be possible." def data_received_callback(timestamp, data, logconf): print "[%d][%s]: %s" % (timestamp, logconf.name, data) def logging_error(logconf, msg): print "Error when logging %s" % logconf.name
The values of log varibles are transferred from the Crazyflie using CRTP packets, where all varibles belonging to one logging configuration are transfered in the same packet. A CRTP packet has a maximum data size of 30 bytes, which sets an upper limit to the number of variables that can be used in one logging configuration. If the desired log variables do not fit in one logging configuration, a second cofiguration may be added.
The synchronous classes are wrappers around the asynchronouse API, where the asynchronous calls/callbacks are replaced with blocking calls. The synchronous API does not provide the full flexibility of the asynchronous API, but is useful when writing small scripts for logging for instance.
The synchronous API uses the python Context manager concept, that is the
A resource is allocated when entering a
with section and automatically released when
exiting it, for instance a connection or take off/landing of a Crazyflie.
The SyncCrazyflie class wrapps a Crazyflie instance and mainly simplifies connect/disconnect.
with SyncCrazyflie(uri) as scf: # A Crazyflie instance is created and is now connected. If the connection failes, # an exception is raised. # The underlying crazyflie object can be accessed through the cf member scf.cf.param.set_value('kalman.resetEstimation', '1') # Do useful stuff # When leaving the "with" section, the connection is automatically closed
If some special properties are required for the underlying Crazyflie object, a Crazyflie instance can be passed in to the SyncCrazyflie instance.
my_cf = Crazyflie(rw_cache='./cache') with SyncCrazyflie(uri, cf=my_cf) as scf: # The my_cf is now connected # Do useful stuff # When leaving the "with" section, the connection is automatically closed
The SyncLogger class wraps setting up, as well as starting/stopping logging. It works both for Crazyflie and SyncCrazyflie instances. To get the log values, iterate the instance.
# Connect to a Crazyflie with SyncCrazyflie(uri) as scf: # Create a log configuration log_conf = LogConfig(name='myConf', period_in_ms=200) log_conf.add_variable('stateEstimateZ.vx', 'int16_t') # Start logging with SyncLogger(scf, log_conf) as logger: # Iterate the logger to get the values count = 0 for log_entry in logger: print(log_entry) # Do useful stuff count += 1 if (count > 10): # The logging will continue until you exit the loop break # When leaving this "with" section, the logging is automatically stopped # When leaving this "with" section, the connection is automatically closed
The MotionCommander is intended to simplify basic autonomous flight. The Crazyflie takes off when entering the “with” section, and lands when exiting. It has functions for basic movements that are blocking until the motion is finished.
The MotionCommander is using velocity set points and does not have a global coordinate system, all positions are relative. It is mainly intended to be used with a Flow deck.
with SyncCrazyflie(URI) as scf: # We take off when the commander is created with MotionCommander(scf) as mc: # Move one meter forward mc.forward(1) # Move one meter back mc.back(1) # The Crazyflie lands when leaving this "with" section # When leaving this "with" section, the connection is automatically closed
The PositionHlCommander is intended to simplify basic autonomous flight. The Crazyflie takes off when entering the “with” section, and lands when exiting. It has functions for basic movements that are blocking until the motion is finished.
The PositionHlCommander uses the high level commander in the Crazyflie and is based on a global coordinate system and absolute positoinins. It is inteneded to be used with a positioning system such as LPS, the lighthouse or a mocap system.
with SyncCrazyflie(URI) as scf: with PositionHlCommander(scf) as pc: # Go to the coordinate (0, 0, 1) pc.go_to(0.0, 0.0, 1.0) # The Crazyflie lands when leaving this "with" section # When leaving this "with" section, the connection is automatically closed
The see the example folder of the repository.