As you probably noticed already, this summer I experimented with ROS2 and connecting the Crazyflie with multi-ranger to several mapping and navigation nodes (see this and this blogpost). First I started with an experimental repo on my personal Github account called crazyflie_ros2_experimental, where I managed to do some mapping and navigation already. In August we started porting most of this functionality to the crazyswarm2 project, so that is what this blogpost is mostly about.

Crazyswarm goes ROS2

Most of you are already familiar with Crazyswarm for ROS1, which is a project that Wolfgang Hönig and James Preiss have maintained since its creation in 2017 at the University of Southern California. Since then, many have used and referred to this work, since the paper has been cited more than 260 times. From all the Crazyflie papers of the latest ICRA and IROS conferences, 50 % of the papers have used Crazyswarm as their communication middleware. If you haven’t heard about Crazyswarm yet, please check-out the nice BAMdays talk Wolfgang gave last year.

Unfortunately, ROS1 will not be there forever and will be phased out anno 2025 and will not be supported for Ubuntu 22.04 and up. Therefore, Wolfgang, now at the Intelligent Multi-robot Coordination Lab at TU Berlin, has already started with the ROS2 port of Crazyswarm, namely Crazyswarm2. Here the same principle of the C++ based Crazyflie server and the python wrapper were been implemented, along with the simple position based simulation and Teleop nodes. Mind that the name Crazyswarm2 is just the project name out of historic reasons, but the package itself can also be used for individual Crazyflies as well. That is why the package names will be called crazyflie_*

Porting the Summer Hack project to Crazyswarm2

The crazyflie_ros2_experimental was fun to hack around, as it was (as the name suggests) experimental and I didn’t need to worry about releases, bugfixes etc. However, the problem of developing only here, is that the further you go the more work it becomes to make it more official. That is when Wolfgang and I sat down and started talking about porting what I’ve done in the summer into Crazyswarm2. This is also a good opportunity to get more involved with the project, especially with so many Crazyfliers using the ROS as well.

The first step was to write a second crazyflie_server node that relied on the python CFlib. This means that many of the variables I used to hardcode in the experimental node, needed to be defined within the parameter structure of ROS2. The crazyflies.yaml is where anything relevant for the server (like the URIs and parameters) needs to be defined. Both the C++ backend server and the CFlib backend server are using the same parameters. Also the functionality of the both servers are pretty similar, except for that logging is only possible on the CFlib version and uploading/follow trajectories is only possible on the C++ version. An overview will be provided soon on the Crazyswarm2 documentation website.

The second step was to make the crazyflie_server (cflib) node suitable to be connected to external packages that I’ve worked with during the hack project. Therefore, there are some special logging modes, that enables the server to not only output topics based on logging, but Pose/Odometry/LaserScan messages along with Transforms. This allowed the SLAM_toolbox to use the data from the Crazyflie itself to create a map, which you can see an example of in this tutorial.

Moreover, for the navigation it was important that incoming Twist messages either from keyboard or from a navigation toolkit were handled properly. Most of these packages assume a 2D non-holonomic robot, but a quadcopter like the Crazyflie needs to first take off, stay in the air and land. Therefore in the examples, a separate node ( was written to receive incoming Twist messages, first have the Crazyflie take off in high level commander, and keep sending hover commands to keep it in the air until a land service is called.

What’s next?

As you probably noticed, the project is still under development, but at least it is now at a good state that we feel comfortable to presented at the upcoming ROScon :) We also want to include an more official simulation package, especially now that the Crazyflie has recently became part of the official release of Webots 2022b, but we are currently waiting on the webots_ros2 to be released in the ubuntu packages. Moreover, the idea is to provide multiple simulation backends that based on the requirement of the topic (swarms, vision-based etc), the user can select the simulation most useful for their situation. Also, we would like to even out the missing items (trajectory handling, logging) in both the cflib and cpp backend of the crazyflie_server so that they can be used interchangeably. Also, I saw that the experimental simple mapper node has been featured on social media, so perhaps we should be converting that to Crazyswarm2 as well :)

So once we got the most of the above mentioned issues out the way, that will be the time that we can start discussing the official release of a ROS2 Crazyflie package with its source code residing in the Crazyswarm2 repository. In the meantime, it would be awesome that anybody that is interested in ROS2, or want to soon upgrade their Crazyswarm(1) packages to ROS2 to give the package a whirl. The more people that are trying it out and report bugs/proposing fixes, the more stable it becomes and closer it will come to an official release! Please join us and start any discussions on the Crazyswarm2 project github repository.

In the first years that I started at Bitcraze I’ve been focused mostly on embedded development and algorithmic design like the app layer, controllers and estimators and such, however recently I started to be quite interested in the robotic integration between the Crazyflie and other (open-source) projects and users. This means that I’ll be dwelling more often in the space between Bitcraze and the community, which is something that I do really enjoy I noticed during the Grand Tour. It also initiated my work with simulators which I think would be very useful for the community too. The summer fun project that I’ve been now working on is to integrate the Crazyflie with ROS2 to integrate standard navigational packages, which will be the topic of this blogpost!

ROS2 Crazyflie Node

So first I worked on the ROS2 node that actually communicates with the Crazyflie directly. I think many of you are familiar with the USC’s CrazySwarm project, of which the ROS2 variant, CrazySwarm2, is already available for most functionalities. Even though the name says CrazySwarm, this can be very easily used for only one Crazyflie too. The CrazySwam2 is currently under more development by the IMRClab of TU Berlin, but please take a look if you want to give it a go!

For now while Crazyswarm2 is still under development, I used the Bitcraze Crazyflie python library to make a more hackish node that just publishes exactly the information I want. I am focusing on the scenario with the STEM ranging bundle, aka the Crazyflie + Flowdeck (optical flow + distance sensor) + Multi-ranger (5 x distance sensors) combo, where the node logs the multi-ranger data and the odometry from the Flowdeck with the Crazyradio and outputs that into necessary /scan and /odom topics. Moreover, it also outputs several tf2 transforms that makes it possible to either visualize it in RVIZ and/or connect it to any other packages and it should react to incoming twist messages as well.

Development with a Simulator

And of course… I went in head first and connected it directly with the SLAM toolbox. I have worked with ROS1 in the past, but I had my first experience working with that package in the course: Build Mobile Robots with ROS2 (by Weekly Robotic Newsletter’s Mat Sadowski), so I couldn’t wait to try it on a real platform like the Crazyflie. However, tuning this was of course more work than I thought, as the map that I got out of it first was mostly a sparse collection of dots. Of course the SLAM toolbox is meant for lidars and not something that provided sparse range distances like the Multiranger. Then I decided to take one or two steps back, and first connect a simulator to make tuning a bit easier.

Luckily, I’ve already started to look at simulators, and was quite far in the Webots integration of the Crazyflie. Actually… Webots’ next release (2022b) will contain a Crazyflie as standard! Once it is out, I’ll write a blogpost about that separately :). As luck has it, Webots also has good ROS2 integration as well, and even won the ‘Best ROS Software’ award by The Construct’s ROS awards! Another reason is that I wanted to try out a different simulator for ROS2 this time to complement what I’ve learned in the ROS2 course I mentioned earlier.

So I used the webots driver node to write a simulated Crazyflie that should output the same information as the real Crazyflie node, so that I can easily hack around and try out different things without constantly disturbing my cats from their slumber :). Anyway, I won’t go into to the simulator too much and save that for another blogpost!

Simple Mapping

I decided to also take another additional step before going full SLAM, which is to make a simple mapper node first! This takes the estimated state estimate of the Crazyflie and the Multiranger’s range values and it creates an occupancy grid type map of it. I do have to give kudos to the Marcus’ cflib Pointcloud script and Webot’s simple mapper example, as I did look at them for some reference. But still with the examples, integration and connecting the dots together is quite some work. Luckily I had the simulator to try things out with!

So first I put the Crazyflie in an apartment simulator, flew around and see if any decent maps comes out of it and it seemed it did! Of course, the simulated Crazyflie’s ‘odometry’ comes from near perfect position estimate, so I didn’t expect any problems there (and in such a situation you would actually not really need the localization part of SLAM). This still needs some improvements to be done, like now range measurements that don’t see anything are excluded from drawing, but still it was pretty cool to map the virtual environment.

So it was off to try it out on a real crazyflie. In one of our meeting rooms, I had one Crazyflie take off, let it turn around with a twist message in a /cmd_vel topic and made a map of the room I was currently in. The effect of the 4 range sensors rotating around and creating a map in one go, makes me think of these retro video transitions. And the odometry drift does not seem as bad for it to be possible, but I haven’t mapped our entire office yet so that might be different!

What’s next?

So I’m not stopping here for sure, I want to extend this functionality further and for sure get it to work with the SLAM_toolbox properly! But if the simple mapper already can produce such quality, I’m pretty sure that this can be done in one way or the other. What I could also do, is first generate a simple map and already have a go at the NAV2 package with that one… there are many roads to Rome here!

Currently I’m doing my work on my personal Github account in the crazyflie_ros2_experimental repository. Everything is still very much in development, hackish and quite specific for one use case but that is expected to change once things are working better, so please check the planning in the project’s readme. In the mean time, you can indicate to us in this vote if this is an interesting direction for us to go towards. Not that it will stop me from continuing this project since it is too much fun, but it is always good to know if certain efforts are appreciated!