Author: Kristoffer Richardsson

We’re happy to announce the availability of the 2021.01 release! The release includes the Crazyflie firmware (2021.01), the python library (0.1.13.1) and the python client (2021.1). The firmware package can be downloaded from the Crazyflie release repository (2021.01) or can be flashed directly using the client bootloader window.

Most of the improvements have been done in the Crazyflie firmware and include:

The App API in the Crazyflie firmware has been extended and improved to be able to handle a wider range of applications. The goal is to enable a majority of users to implement the functionality they need in an app instead of hacking into the firmware it self.

We have improved the Lighthouse support in the firmware and both V1 and V2 are now working well. Even-though everything is not finished yet, we have taken a good step towards official Lighthouse positioning.

A collision avoidance module has kindly been contributed by the Crazyswarm team.

A persistant storage module has been added to enable data to be persisted and available after the Crazyflie is power cycled. It will initially be used to store Lighthouse system information, but will be useful for many other tasks in the future.

Basic arming functionality has been added for platforms using brushless motors.

In the client the LPS tab now has a 3D visualization of the positioning system and a new tab has been added to show the python log output.

Unfortunately we have run into some problems for the Windows client build which is not available for this release.

Finally we have fixed bugs and worked to improve the general stability.

We hope you enjoy it!

With the raging pandemic in the world, 2021 will most likely not be an ordinary year. Not that any year in the Bitcraze universe has been boring and without excitement so far, but it is unusually hard to make predictions about 2021. Any how, we will try to outline what we see in the crystal ball for the coming year.

Products

What products are cooking in the Bitcraze pot and what tasty new gadgets can we look forward to this year?

Lighthouse

We did hope that we would be able to release the first official version of the Lighthouse system in 2020, but unfortunately we did not make it. It has turned out to be more complex than anticipated but we do think we are fairly close now and that it will be finished soonish, including support for lighthouse V2.

Once the official version has been achieved, we are planning to assemble an full lighthouse bundle, which includes everything you need to start flying in the lighthouse positioning system. This will also include the Basestations V2 as developed by Valve corporation, so stay tuned!

New platforms and improvements

We released the AI-deck last year in early release, but the AIdeck will be soon upgraded with the latest version of the GAP8 chip. For most users this will not change much but for those that really push the deep learning to the edge will be quite happy with this improvement. More over, we are planning to by standard equipped the gray-scale camera instead of the RGB Bayer filter version, due to feedback of the community. We are still planning to offer the color camera on the side as a separate product for those that do value the color information for their application.

Also we noticed the released of several upgraded versions of sensors for the decks that we already are offering today. Pixart and ST have released a new TOF and motion sensor so we will start experimenting with those soon which hopefully lead to a new Multiranger or Flowdeck. Also we are aware of the new DWM3000 chip which would be a nice upgrade to the LPS system, so we will start exploring that as well, however we are not sure if we will be able to release the new version of LPS in 2021 already.

One of the field that we have wanted to improve for a while but have not gotten to so far is the communication with the Crazyflie. The Crazyradio is using a quite old chip and the communication protocol has hardly been touched in years. There now exists a much more powerful nRF52 radio chip with USB port so it can give us the opportunity to make a new Crazyradio and, at the same time, rework the communication protocols to make them more reliable, easier to use and to expand.

People and Collaborations

Last year we have started several collaborations with show drone orientated business, which we are definitely moving forward with in 2021. For shows stability and performance is very important so with the feedback of those that work with that on a regular basis will be crucial for the further development and reliability of our products.

Moreover we would like to continue our close collaboration with researchers at institutes and universities, to help them out with achieving their goals and contribute their work to our opensource firmware and software. Here we want to encourage the community to make their contributions easy to use by others, therefore increasing the reproducibility of the implementations, which is a crucial aspect of research. Also we are planning to have more of our online tutorial like the one we had in November.

We also will be working with closely together with one of our very active community members, Wolfgang Hönig! He has done a lot of great work for the Crazyswarm project from his time at University of Southern California (USC) and has spend the last few years at Caltech. He will be working together with us for a couple of months in the spring so we will be very happy to have him. Moreover, we will also have 2 master students from LTH working with us on the topic hardware simulation in the spring. We are making sure that we can all work together in the current situation, either sparsely at the office or fully online.

In 2021, we will also keep our eyes open for new potential Bitcrazers! We believe that everybody can add her/his own unique addition to the team and therefore it is important for us to keep growing and get new/fresh ideas or approaches to our problem. Usually we would meet new people at conferences but we will try new virtual ways to get to know our community and hopefully will meet somebody that can enhance our crazy group.

Working from home

Due to the pandemic we are currently mainly working from home and from the looks of it, this will continue a while. Even though we think we have managed to find a way to work remotely that is fairly efficient, it is still not at the same level as meeting in real-life, so there is always room for improvement. Further more the lack of access to electronics lab, flight lab and other facilities when working from home, does not speed work up. We will try to do our best though under the current circumstances and are looking forward to an awesome 2021!

This autumn when we had our quarterly planing meeting, it was obvious that there would not be any conferences this year like other years. This meant we would not meet you, our users and hear about your interesting projects, but also that we would not be forced to create a demo. Sometimes we joke that we are working with Demo Driven Development and that is what is pushing us forward, even-though it is not completely true it is a strong driver. We decided to create a demo in our office and share it online instead, we hope you enjoy it!

The wish list for the demo was long but we decided that we wanted to use multiple positioning technologies, multiple platforms and multiple drones in a swarm. The idea was also to let the needs of the demo drive development of other technologies as well as stabilize existing functionality by “eating our own dogfood”. As a result of the work we have for instance:

  • improved the app layer in the Crazyflie
  • Lighthouse V2 support, including basic support for 2+ base stations
  • better support for mixed positioning systems

First of all, let’s check out the video

We are using our office for the demo and the Crazyflies are essentially flying a fixed trajectory from our meeting room, through the office and kitchen to finally land in the Arena. The Crazyflies are autonomous from the moment they take off and there is no communication with any external computer after that, all positioning is done on-board.

Implementation

The demo is mainly implemented in the Crazyflie as an app with a simple python script on an external machine to start it all. The app is identical in all the Crazyflies so the script tells them where to land and checks that all Crazyflies has found their position before they are started. Finally it tells them to take off one by one with a fixed delay in-between.

The Crazyflie app

When the Crazyflie boots up, the app is started and the first thing it does is to prepare by defining a trajectory in the High Level Commander as well as setting data for the Lighthouse base stations in the system. The app uses a couple of parameters for communication and at this point it is waiting for one of the parameters to be set by the python script.

When the parameter is set, the app uses the High Level Commander to take off and fly to the start point of the trajectory. At the starting point, it kicks off the trajectory and while the High Level Commander handles the flying, the app goes to sleep. When reaching the end of the trajectory, the app once more goes into action and directs the Crazyflie to land at a position set through parameters during the initialization phase.

We used a feature of the High Level Commander that is maybe not that well known but can be very useful to make the motion fluid. When the High Level Commander does a go_to for instance, it plans a trajectory from its current position/velocity/acceleration to the target position in one smooth motion. This can be used when transitioning from a go_to into a trajectory (or from go_to to go_to) by starting the trajectory a little bit too early and thus never stop at the end of the go_to, but “slide” directly into the trajectory. The same technique is used at the end of the trajectory to get out of the way faster to avoid being hit by the next Crazyflie in the swarm.

The trajectory

The main part of the flight is one trajectory handled by the High Level Commander. It is generated using the uav_trajectories project from whoenig. We defined a number of points we wanted the trajectory to pass through and the software generates a list of polynomials that can be used by the High Level Commander. The generated trajectory is passing through the points but as a part of the optimization process it also chooses some (unexpected) curves, but that could be fixed with some tweaking.

The trajectory is defined using absolute positions in a global coordinate system that spans the office.

Positioning

We used three different positioning systems for the demo: the Lighthouse (V2), the Loco Positioning system (TDoA3) and the Flow deck. Different areas of the flight space is covered by different system, either individually or overlapping. All decks are active all the time and pick up data when it is available, pushing it into the extended Kalman estimator.

In the meeting room, where we started, we used two Lighthouse V2 base stations which gave us a very precise position estimate (including yaw) and a good start. When the Crazyflies moved out into the office, they only relied on the Flowdeck and that worked fine even-though the errors potentially builds up over time.

When the Crazyflies turned around the corner into the hallway towards the kitchen, we saw that the errors some times were too large, either the position or yaw was off which caused the Crazyflies to hit a wall. To fix that, we added 4 LPS nodes in the hallway and this solved the problem. Note that all the 4 anchors are on the ground and that it is not enough to give the Crazyflie a good 3D position, but the distance sensor on the Flow deck provides Z-information and the overall result is good.

The corner when going from the kitchen into the Arena is pretty tight and again the build up of errors made it problematic to rely on the Flow deck only, so we added a lighthouse base station for extra help.

Finally, in the first part of the Arena, the LPS system has full 3D coverage and together with the Flow deck it is smooth sailing. About half way the Crazyflies started to pick up the Lighthouse system as well and we are now using data from all three systems at the same time.

Obviously we were using more than 2 basestations with the Lighthouse system and even though it is not officially supported, it worked with some care and manual labor. The geometry data was for instance manually tweaked to fit the global coordinate system.

The wall between the kitchen and the Arena is very thick and it is unlikely that UWB can go through it, but we still got LPS data from the Arena anchors occasionally. Our interpretation is that it must have been packets bouncing on the walls into the kitchen. The stray packets were picked up by the Crazyflies but since the Lighthouse base station provided a strong information source, the LPS packets did not cause any problems.

Firmware modifications

The firmware is essentially the stock crazyflie-firmware from Github, however we did make a few alterations though:

  • The maximum velocity of the PID controller was increased to make it possible to fly a bit faster and create a nicer demo.
  • The number of lighthouse base stations was increased
  • The PID controller was tweaked for the Bolt

You can find the source code for the demo on github. The important stuff is in examples/demos/hyperdemo

The hardware

In the demo we used 5 x Crazyflie 2.1 and 1 x Bolt very similar to the Li-Ion Bolt we built recently. The difference is that this version used a 2-cell Li-Po and lower KV motors but the Li-Ion Bolt would have worked just as well.

Hyperdemo drones and they configurations

To make all positioning to work at the same time we needed to add 3 decks, Lighthouse, Flow v2 and Loco-deck. On the Crazyflie 2.1 this fits if the extra long pin-headers are used and the Lighthouse is mounted on top and the Loco-deck underneath the Crazyflie 2.1 with the Flow v2 on the bottom. The same goes for the Bolt, but here we had to solder the extra long pin-header and the long pin-header together to make them long enough.

There is one catch though… the pin resources for the decks collide. With some patching of the loco-deck this can be mitigated by moving its IRQ to IO_2 using the solder-jumper. The RST needs to be moved to IO_4 which requires a small patch wire.

Also some FW configuration is needed which is added to the hyperdemo makefile:

CFLAGS += -DLOCODECK_USE_ALT_PINS
CFLAGS += -DLOCODECK_ALT_PIN_RESET=DECK_GPIO_IO4

The final weight for the Crazyflie 2.1 is on the heavy side and we quickly discover that fully charged batteries should be used or else the crash probability is increased a lot.

Conclusions

We’re happy we were able to set this demo up and that it was fairly straight forward. The whole setup of it was done in one or two days. The App layer is quite useful and we tend to use it quite often when trying out ideas, which we interpret as a good sign :-)

We are satisfied with the results and hope it will inspire some of you out there to push the limits even further!

As mentioned in this blog post, we added the possibility to write apps for the Crazyflie firmware a while ago. Now we have added more functions in the Firmware to make it possible to use apps for an even wider range of tasks.

The overall idea of the app API is to mirror the functionality of the python lib. This will enable a user to prototype an application in python with quick iterations, when everything is working the app can easily be ported to C to run in the Crazyflie instead. The functions in the firmware are not identical to the python flavour but we have tried to keep them as close as possible to make the translation simple.

An app is also a much better way to contain custom functionality as the underlying firmware can be updated without merging any code. The intention is that the api API will be stable over time and apps that work one version of the firmware also should work with the next version.

Improvements

We used our demo from IROS and ICRA (among others) with a fairly autonomous swarm as a driver for the development. The demo used to be implemented in a branch of the firmware with various modifications of the code base to make it possible to do what we wanted. The goal of the exercise was to convert the demo into an app and add the required API to the firmware to enable the app to do its thing. The new app is available here.

The main areas where we have extended the API are:

Log and parameters framework

The log framework is the preferred way for an app to read data from the firmware and this has been working from the start. Similarly the parameter framework is the way to set parameters. Even though this has worked, it broke a basic assumption in the setup with the client, that only the client can change a parameter. Changing a parameter from an app could lead to that the client and Crazyflie had different views of the state in the Crazyflie, but this has now been fixed and the client is updated when needed.

High level commander

The high level commander was not accessible from an app earlier and the functions in the python lib have been added to make it easy to handle autonomous flight.

Custom LED sequences

It is now possible to register custom LED sequences to control the four LEDs on the Crazyflie to signal events or state.

Lighthouse functionality

Functions for setting base station geometry data as well as calibration data have been added. These functions are also very useful for those who are using the lighthouse system as it now can be done from an app instead of modifying lighthouse_position_est.c.

Remaining work

We have taken a step forward with these changes but there is more to be done! The two main areas are support for custom CRTP packets and memory mapping through the memory sub system. There might be more, let us know if there is something you are missing. The work will continue and there might even be some documentation at some point :-)

Tutorial

One reason for doing this API work now was to prepare for the tutorial about the lighthouse 2 positioning system, swarm autonomy and the demo app that we will run this Wednesday on-line, don’t miss out! You can read more about the event here.

We’re happy to announce that we have taken an important step forward in the development of the lighthouse positioning system, we have improved the calibration compensation. The changes improves the correctness of the coordinate system, especially for lighthouse V2 base stations.

As mentioned in this blog post one of the remaining areas to solve was handling of calibration data and this is what we have addressed lately. In the manufacturing process mechanical elements are mounted within some tolerances but since the precision of the system is so good, also a very fine tolerances makes a big difference in the end result. Each base station is measured in the factory and the calibration data describing these imperfections are stored in the base station. The calibration data is transmitted in the light sweeps to enable a receiver to use it to correct for the errors in the measured angles.

As with everything else related to lighthouse, there is no official information of how to interpret the calibration data so we (and the community) had to make educated guesses.

Lighthouse 1

The compensation model for lighthouse 1 has been known for quite long, see the Astrobee project by Nasa and Libsurvive. The most important parameter is the phase and until now this is the only part of the calib data that we have used in the firmware. In the new implementation we use all parameters.

The parameters of the lighthouse 1 calibration model are phase, tilt, gib mag, gib phase and curve.

Lighthouse 2

The compensation data for lighthouse 2 is similar to lighthouse 1 but there are two new parameters, ogee mag and ogee phase. It also seems as some parameters that are sharing names between lighthouse 1 and 2 have different meanings, for instance curve.

Libsurvive has implemented compensation for lighthouse 2 but we have unfortunately not managed to use their work with good results, instead we have tried to figure out what the model might look like and match it to measurements. We have managed to get good results for the phase, tilt, gib mag and gib phase, while we don’t know how to use curve and ogee mag and ogee phase. The solution seems to be pretty good with a subset of the parameters and we have decided to leave it at that for now.

Use of calibration data

The way we have used the calibration data so far has been to apply it to the measured angles to get (more) correct sweep angles that have been fed into the position estimation algorithms. The problem is that the compensation model is designed the other way around, i.e. it goes from correct angles to measured angles, and an iterative approach is required to apply it to the measured angles. A better way (most likely by design) is to apply it in the kalman estimator instead where it simply becomes part of the measurement model.

Currently we do calculate the corrected angles as well and expose them as log data, but it is not required for the standard functionality of the lighthouse system. We may make it possible to turn it on/off via a parameter in the future to save some CPU power.

Functional improvements

So what kind of improvements will the calibration add?

The first improvement is the base station geometry estimation. With more correct angles the estimated base station position and orientation will be better. This is important to be able to get a good estimation of the Crazyflie position since poor geometry data will give the position estimator conflicting data.

Secondly more correct angles will straighten the coordinate system. With angular distortion the position estimator will not be able to estimate the correct position and the coordinate system will be warped, bent or stretched. The improvement can be seen when flying parallel to the floor at constant height for instance.

Thirdly the stability will hopefully be improved. When the angles from two base stations match better, the estimated position will change less when one base station is occluded and generally make life easier for the position estimator. We will take a look at the outlier filter to see if it can be improved as well.

Remaining problems

The calibration data is transmitted as a part of the sweeping light planes with a low bitrate. For lighthouse 1 the decoding process works well and all calibration data is usually received within 20-30 seconds. For lighthouse 2 it does not work as well in our current implementation it takes (much) longer before all data has been received correctly from both base stations.

It is possible to get the calibration data via the USB port on lighthouse 2 and we are considering storing the calibration data in the Crazyflie somehow instead. This will be even more important when we support larger systems (2+ base stations) and all base stations are not within range at startup.

It has almost been 2.5 years since we last made a compilation video about what has been done with the crazyflie 2.0 (see this blogpost). During this time we released several new products and many of you were able to achieve very cool and awesome applications so we thought it was time for a new research compilation video!

We have seen quite a lot of projects with swarms of Crazyflies, ranging from close proximity flight to autonomous exploration in a building. Some research groups have also been experimenting with controlling the Crazyflie with our own hands, either to control its position or to reach another state of mind entirely. Others have created their own deck in order to add their own sensors or cameras necessary for their application. One of those even led to the new AI-deck that we introduced in early release before the summer! Last but not least: we were shown that the low level control can be further improved and multiple crazyflies can be linked together and still fly!

We were overwhelmed by all the awesome things that the community showed us of what possible with the Crazyflie and this will inspire others to think of new things to do as well. We hope that we can continue with helping you to make your ideas fly, so that we are soon to be forced to make another completion video ;)

Here is a list of all the research that has been included in the movie:

  • Close proximity flight of sixteen quadrotor drones, CalTech: B. Rivière, W. Hoenig, Y. Yue, and S.-J. Chung (video, paper)
  • Pointing gestures, IDSIA: B. Gromov, J, Guzzi, L. M. Gambardella, A. Giusti (video, project)
  • Yaw actuation, Modlab UPenn: B. Gabrich G. LiM. Yim (video, paper)
  • Learning to seek, Harvard University: B. P. Duisterhof , S. Krishnan, J. J. Cruz, C. R. Banbury, W. Fu, A. Faust, G. C. H. E. de Croon, V. Janapa Reddi (video, paper)
  • Drone Chi, Exertion Labs and RMIT: J. La Delfa, M. Baytas, E. Luke, B. Koder, F. Mueller (video, project)
  • Generalization through simulation, Berkeley AI Research (BAIR): K. Kang, S. Belkhale, G. Kahn, P. Abbeel, S. Levine (video, paper)
  • Swarm exploration, TU Delft: K.N. McGuire, C. De Wagter, K. Tuyls, H. Kappen, G.C.H.E. de Croon (video, paper)
  • PULP-based autonomous drone, ETH Zürich: D. Palossi, F. Conti, and L. Benini (video, paper)
  • Networked Autonomous Aerial Vehicles, University of Klagenfurt, Austria: Research by Karl Popper Kolleg (video)
  • GLAS for Multi-Robot Motion Planning with End-to-End Learning, CalTech: B. Rivière, W. Hoenig, Y. Yue, and S.-J. Chung (video, paper)
  • Resilience by reconfiguration, USC: R. K. Ramachandran, J. A. Preiss, G. S. Sukhatme (video, paper)

We are happy to annouce that we have released a new version of the Crazyflie firmware, version 2020.09. It is available for download from Github.

The new firmware solves an old compatibility issue when using the LPS and Flow deck at the same time and also improves stability. A list of all the issues that have been fixed can be found on the release page.

For users that have a LPS system, we have also made some improvements to the LPS node firmware and are releasing version 2020.09.

If you are building the Crazyflie or LPS firmware from source, remember to update the libdw1000 git submodule using

git submodule update

We are working on a release of the python client as well, but still have a few issues to fix so stay tuned.

We’re happy to announce the availability of the 2020.06 release! The release includes the Crazyflie firmware, the Crazyflie NRF firmware and the python library (0.1.11). You can find the full package in the Crazyflie Release repository, to be used for flashing through the python client.

More RAM

The major event of this release is the use of the Core Coupled Memory in the Crazyflie. The CCM is a 64k RAM memory bank and by moving memory blocks from the standar RAM to the CCM, we have freed up 64k of RAM! The 128k of RAM was almost full so an extra 50% is good news.

One might ask why this has not been done earlier and the answer is that the CCM has some special properties that has to be taken into account. It is RAM, just like the “normal” RAM, but it is connected to a different internal bus in the STM MCU. The most notable difference is that it can not be used in DMA operations that are commonly used when accessing sensors, and if a pointer to CCM memory is passed to a sensor driver things will go bad. To make it clear where the memory is located, we have introduced a macro to be used when explicitly moving a memory area to the CCM, otherwise it will end up in normal RAM.

Hopefully the chosen design will have very little impact on the “normal” firmware programmer. We have moved a bunch of memory blocks to the CCM that are “safe”, and most programmers can happily forget about the CCM and just enjoy the new 64k of available RAM!

Battery temperature

In release 2020.02 we introduces a battery temperature check do not charge the battery if it is too warm. Lithium batteries likes to be charged within 0-45 deg Celsius. To do this we used the temp sensor within the nRF51822 which is mounted just under the battery. It hover turned out that the temp measurement is way to biased and as a result stops charging to early. So in this release we did more measurements and increased the allowed charging range.

The Lighthouse V2 implementation has been simmering away for a long time in the Bitcraze kitchen and in this blog post we will give you an update on the current status and what is remaining for a full release of this tasty dish.

Crazyflie 2.1 and Lighthouse V2 base station

We believe we have solved most of the major technical hurdles (last famous words) on the way to a working implementation that uses Lighthouse V2 base stations for positioning, now it is mostly work to implement the functionality that is remaining. As described in this post we now have a new FPGA binary that has the ability to decode both V1 and V2 base stations, and this was a major step forward. This new binary is used in the Crazyflie firmware master branch, and if the Lighthouse deck is used with the latest Crazyflie firmware, the new FPGA binary will automatically be flashed to the deck.

What has changed?

The new FPGA binary uses a different UART protocol to communicate with the Crazyflie. This protocol has been implemented in the firmware and hopefully there is no functional difference compared to the previous FPGA binary when using Lighthouse V1 base stations.

We have added a first version of Lighthouse V2 base station decoding, but it is still a bit limited. As a start we decided to “emulate” V1 base stations to be able to reuse as much of the existing code as possible. For now we support only 2 base stations and they must use channel 1 and 2 (used to be called modes). The V2 angles are transformed into V1 angles and fed into the old positioning logic and are handled exactly the same way as before. Even though this works, it is not the optimal solution and we hope to be able to refine it later on.

We have also written a python script to estimate base station geometry (positions and orientation) using the Lighthouse deck. This removed the requirement to use software from Steam which should simplify the set up process. Please see the (still limited) documentation. Note that this calibration method only supports the basestation V1… for now!

There is a lot of code that has been modified and the FPGA implementation is completely new, it is not unlikely that there is functionality that is unstable or broken, or configurations that are not supported. If you happen to notice any bugs, please let us know!

What is remaining?

The functional areas that needs to be implemented or cleaned up before we leave the Early Access stage is the following:

Calibration data

The calibration data is embedded in the modulated light from the base stations and describes imperfections from the manufacturing process for each individual. This data is not read yet for V2 and will increase the precision when available.

Support for more than 2 base stations

Lighthouse V2 base stations are designed for systems with more than 2 base stations. The Crazyflie firmware needs to be extended for this functionality to work, including handling of geometry data, logging, memory management and some other bits and pieces.

Native V2 positioning

The angles from the V2 base station should be fed directly into the kalman filter for positioning, instead of first being transformed into V1 angles. This will increase robustness and reduce data loss.

Client support

We want to add a tab in the python client where a Lighthouse system can be monitored, configured and managed. It should, for instance enable the user to configure and visualize base station geometry.

FPGA binaray management

Currently the FPGA binary is included in the Crazyflie firmware and it is automatically uploaded to the deck when booted. This is not a viable long term solution and we hope to be able to find a more generic way of handling deck binaries.

Conclusions

As can be seen, there is still quite some work to be done before the Lighthouse V2 stew is ready to be served, but we are definitely starting to smell some nice flavours from the kitchen!

Finally a view from Kristoffer’s home lab, currently in the summer house. Three base stations are set up as a Fun Friday hack to see what it would take to use more than 2. Luckily it did not take too much time to get this to work :-)

3 Lighthouse V2 base stations

We have mentioned the Active Marker deck in an earlier blog post, and are now happy to announce that it has been released and is available in our store.

Crazyflie with Active marker deck

By changing the passive, reflective markers to active, IR-LEDs, it is possible to improve the detection of markers in the cameras. There are two main reasons: the area of the marker is smaller and easier to separate from other markers close by, and the LEDs are emitting light and can be detected further away.

The deck has been developed in collaboration with Qualisys and together with the QTM system, it utilizes their Active Marker technology. An ID is assigned to each marker, and since the identity of each marker can be detected by the MoCap system, it is possible to estimate the full body pose of the Crazyflie without unique marker positions or known starting positions. IDs are easily assigned using the parameter sub system of the Crazyflie.

Even though the deck mainly is intended to be used with Qualisys MoCap systems, the LED markers can also be configured to be on or off which we hope might be useful in other applications as well.